The Urinary Bladder Stone can either travel from kidney and ureter into the ladder or can be formed in urinary bladder secondary to obstruction in passage.
These bladder stones are usually associated with stasis of urine, but they can form in healthy individuals without evidence of anatomic defects, strictures, infections, or foreign bodies. The presence of upper urinary tract calculi is not necessarily a predisposition to the formation of bladder stones.
The presentation of vesical calculi (urinary bladder calculi) varies from completely asymptomatic to the following symptoms
Cystoscopy is performed to evaluate lower urinary tract like urethra and prostate and finally to visualize the stone into the bladder. If the stone is small., it can be manually fragmented with the forceps and the fragments are removed through the cystoscope.
In case of larger bladder stone, the percutaneous suprapubic route is selected. This allows the use of shorter- and larger-diameter endoscopic equipment like nephroscope (usually with an ultrasonic lithotripter), which allows rapid fragmentation and evacuation of the calculi. Often, a combined transurethral and percutaneous approach can be used to aid in stone stabilization and to facilitate irrigation of the stone debris.
This procedure become the preferred mode of treatment for very large or multiple bladder calculi associated with enlargement of prostate.